Saturday, May 14, 2011

Krakatau Volcano

Krakatoa is a volcanic island that is still active and located in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. This name was pinned on a volcanic peak there (Mount Krakatau) is gone because of his own eruptions on 26-27 August 1883. The eruption was so violent, hot cloud and from the tsunami that resulting of eruption killed about 36,000 people. As before December 26, 2004, this was the worst tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. Voice explosion was heard up in Alice Springs, Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Africa, 4653 miles. Its explosive power is estimated to be 30,000 times the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
The eruption of Krakatoa caused global climate change. The world was dark for two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. The sun was shining dim until next year. Scattering of dust visible in the sky Norway to New York.
The explosion of Krakatoa is actually still less than the eruption of Mount Toba and Mount Tambora in Indonesia, Mount Tanpo in New Zealand and the Mount Katmal in Alaska. However, these mountains erupted deep in the human population is still very small. Meanwhile, when Mount Krakatoa erupted, the human population is dense enough, science and technology has evolved, the telegraph was invented, and subsea cable already installed. Thus we can say that moment of information technology is growing and developing rapidly.
Noted that the eruption of Krakatoa was the first major disaster in the world after the invention of the telegraph under the sea. That progress unfortunately has not been matched by progress in the field of geology. The geologist was not even able to give an explanation of these eruptions.
Ancient Krakatoa
Looking at the area of Mount Krakatau in the Sunda Strait, experts estimate that in ancient times there was a huge volcano in the Sunda Strait that finally broke the terrible leaving a caldera (crater size) are called the Ancient Krakatau volcano, which is the parent of the eruption of Mount Krakatau in 1883. The mountain is composed of andesitic rocks.
Notes on Ancient Krakatau eruption, taken from an ancient Javanese text called The Book of King Parwa estimated from the year 416 AD. It contained, among others, stated:
There was a thundering sound of thunder from Mount Batuwara. There is also shaking the earth, scary, total darkness, thunder and lightning. Then came the wind and rain storms are terrible and the whole storm darkened the entire world. A great flood came from Mount Batuwara and flows east towards Mount Kamula .... When the water sink, the island of Java, separated into two, creating islands of Sumatra
Berend George Escher geologists and other experts believe that some of the world: the story comes from the Ancient Krakatau volcano, which is referred to in the text Batuwara Mt. According to the Book of King Parwa, the higher the Ancient Krakatau was reaching 2,000 meters above sea level, and the circle of beaches reaching 11 kilometers.

Due to the great explosion, three-fourths of the body Ancient Krakatau was destroyed leaving a caldera (crater size) in the Sunda Strait. The sides or edges kawahnya known as Rakata Island, Long Island and Island Sertung, in another post called Rakata island, Pulau Rakata Kecil and Pulau Sertung. This eruption allegedly responsible for the centuries of darkness on earth. Bubonic plague disease caused by cool temperature. This plague is significantly reducing the number of people on earth.

The eruption was also considered to be contributing for the end of the heyday ancient Persia, the transmutation of the Roman Empire to the Byzantine Empire, the end of civilization of South Arabia, the extinction of a large Mayan city, Tikal and the collapse of the Nazca civilization in South America that full of puzzles. Ancient Krakatoa explosion is expected to last for 10 days with an estimated mass of vomit speeds reach 1 million tons per second. The blast has formed thick atmosphere shields 20-150 meters, lowering the temperature of 5-10 degrees for 10-20 years.x

The emergence of Mount Krakatau
Rakata Island, which is one of three remaining island of Krakatoa Ancient then grow in accordance with volcanic encouragement from the bowels of the earth, known as Mount Krakatoa (or Mount Rakata) made of basaltic rock. Then, the two emerged from the volcano crater, named Mount Danan and Mount Perbuwatan which later united with Mount Rakata which appeared first. The third unity volcano is called Mount Krakatoa.
Mount Krakatoa erupted in 1680 produced andesitic lava acid. Then in 1880, Mount Perbuwatan active issue, although not erupt lava. After that time, there is no volcanic activity at Krakatau until May 20, 1883. On that day, after 200 years of sleep, a small explosion occurred at Mount Krakatoa. That would be the early signs of the massive eruption in the Sunda Strait. This small explosion was followed by small eruptions that peak occurs at 26 to 27 August 1883.
1883 eruption on Monday, August 27, 1883, at 10:20, the mountain explodes. According to Simon Winchester, a geologist at Oxford University English graduate who is also the author of National Geographic said that the blast was the biggest, loudest voice and the most devastating volcanic event in modern human history. The voice sounded eruptions until 4600 km from the center of the eruption and can even be heard by the eighth inhabitants of the earth at that time. According to researchers at the University of North Dakota, the explosion of Krakatoa and Tambora (1815) has the largest value of the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) in modern history. The Guinness Book of Records recorded the explosion of Anak Krakatau as the most powerful explosion in recorded history. Krakatoa explosion had thrown stones pumice and volcanic ash by volume of 18 cubic miles. Shot of dust vulkanisnya reach 80 km. Hard objects which flew into the air, falling on the plains of Java and Sumatra islands even up to Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand. The eruption destroyed Danan Mountain, Mount Perbuwatan and part of Mount Rakata where a half cone is missing, create a basin-wide 7 km and as deep as 250 meters. Sea waves rose as high as 40 meters to destroy the villages and what was on the coast. The tsunami was caused not only because of the eruption but also submarine landslide. Noted the number of the dead reached 36,417 people from 295 villages in coastal areas ranging from Peacock (Attack) until cilamaya in Karawang, West coast of Banten to display on the island of Cape Panaitan (Ujung Kulon and southern parts of Sumatra. In Ujungkulon, incoming flood to 15 km to the west. The next day, until a few days later, residents of Jakarta and Lampung hinterland no longer see the sun. Tsunami waves generated even creeping up to the Hawaiian coast, west coast of Central America and the Arabian Peninsula that 7 thousand miles away. 
Anak Krakatau
Starting in 1927 or roughly 40 years after the eruption of Mount Krakatoa, a volcano that emerged is known as Anak Krakatau caldera of an ancient region which is still active and still growing in height. High growth speed of about 20 inches per month. Every year it becomes more and more about 20 feet wide 40 feet. Another note mentions the addition of high-about 4 cm per year and if calculated, then within 25 years the addition of high-achieving children Rakata 7500 inches or 500 feet higher than the previous 25 years. The cause of the high mountain was caused by the material that comes out of the new belly of the mountain. Currently, the height of Anak Krakatau reach about 230 meters above sea level, while Mount Krakatau previously had 813 meters high above sea level.
According to Simon Winchester, despite what happened in the life of Krakatoa which was very scary realities of geology, seismic and tectonic in Java and Sumatra strange will ensure that what used to happen at some point will happen again. No one knows exactly when the Son of Krakatoa to erupt. Some geologists predict this eruption will occur between 2015-2083. However, the effect of earthquakes on the basis of the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 also can not be ignored.

According to Professor Ueda Nakayama one Japanese expert volcano, Anak Krakatau is still relatively safe although there are active and frequent small eruptions, there are only certain times of the tourists are prohibited from approaching the area because of danger of lava that spewed out of this volcano. Other experts claim there is no plausible theory about the Son of Krakatoa which will re-erupt. Even if there are any more or at least 3 centuries after 2325 AD But clearly, the number of victims caused more awesome than the previous eruption. Anak Krakatoa is currently in general by society better known as "Krakatoa" was also, though in fact is a new mountain that grew after the previous eruption.

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